This article provides in-depth fundamental analysis of AksharChem (India) Ltd, an Indian manufacturer of dye intermediates (Vinyl Sulphone) and pigments (CPC Green and CPC Violet) based out of Gujarat.
AksharChem (India) Ltd
Dear Dr Vijay,
Please find attached my detailed analysis of AksharChem (India) Ltd as per your articles and guidance, Kindly share your opinion with me and readers of site www.drvijaymalik.com
About the Company:
AksharChem (India) Ltd is engaged in manufacturing of Vinyl Sulphone (VS, a dye intermediate), a raw material used for manufacturing of reactive dyes which find application in the textile industry. CPC green pigment, violet pigment (new product):
Profit before tax
Total debt (D)
Total div 10
Net cash flow
cash at end
price to earning
Total retained earning 10Y (A)
the increase in Mcap (B)
the value created for 1 INR(B/A)
AksharChem (India) Ltd
CAGR >15% for
last 7-10 years
Growth should be a consistent year on year.
Ignore companies where a sudden spurt of sales in one year is confounding the 10 years performance.
Profit growth 128% (10Yr)
Very high growth rates of >50% are
Look for companies with sustained operating
& net profit margins over the years
Tax rate should be near general corporate tax
rate unless some specific tax incentives are
applicable to the company
Tax payout of approx. 30% since last 3 years
Look for companies with D/E ratio of as low
as possible. Preferably zero debt
CFO > 0
Positive CFO is necessary.
It’s great if CFO meets the outflow for CFI
Yes – after meeting capex it has FCF
PAT vs. CFO
cPAT ~ cCFO
Cumulative PAT and CFO are similar for last
10Yr CFO= 71 is >> 10 Yr PAT= 56 cr
- AksharChem (India) Ltd is growing at a decent sales growth of 20.46% over last 10 years with a very good net profit margin that justifies that co. has good financial strength.
- AksharChem (India) Ltd has an excellent profit growth of 128 over last 10 years.
- From the year 2014, Aksharchem Ltd is regularly paying out tax with more than 30% that glimpse about last three years.
- AksharChem (India) Ltd has a good interest coverage 9 times in recent years that also means that company has sufficient interest coverage to paying out its interest.
- AksharChem (India) Ltd has current liquid assets more than the liabilities to take care of its current liabilities. That suggests AksharChem (India) Ltd’s strong position.
Operating Performance Analysis:
- NPM is 4-9% since last 4 years, it is improved in the current year due to high-profit margin after china ban related product due to environment factors.
- Inventory turnover ratio is improving from 8.8 to 11.7(2011-2016)
- Debtors days improving from 63- 44 (2007-2016).
- Net fixed assets turnover (NFAT) ratio is increasing since 2008- 2016 from 4.5-7.0 and decrease to 3.3 in 2016 due high fix asset in 2015 and 2016.
- Debt is increased from 8 to 31 in 2007-2016 but Debt to equity is 0.19 and it’s almost debt free as per the current fix and liquid assets.
Such companies provide good margin of
> 10-year G-Sec
EY should be greater than long term
government bond yields or bank fixed deposit
Yes – EY 9.97 > government bond yields
However, I find P/B ratio irrelevant for sectors
other than financial services
4.45 – irrelevant
James O’Shaughnessy: Buy if P/S ratio is <
1.5 and sell if >3
Higher the better
DY of >5% is very attractive. However, do not
focus a lot on DY for companies in fast
- The P/E ratio is 10.03 which give somewhat margin of safety at the current price.
- Dividend yield is 0.57%
- (P/S ratio) is 2.11 but high-profit margin, as well as current approved CAPEX of 175 cr over 12-18 month, give better sales in coming quarters.
BUSINESS & INDUSTRY ANALYSIS:
Sales growth >
The Company must show sales growth
higher than peers. If its sales growth is
similar to peers, then there is no Moat
capacity & sales
volume CAGR ~
Company must have shown increased
market penetration by selling higher volumes
of its product/service
Profit CAGR ~
A Moat would result in increasing profits with increasing sales. Otherwise, sales growth is only a result of unnecessary expansion or aggressive marketing push, which would
erode value in the long term
Profit CAGR of 127% with sales growth of 20%
of profits into
cPAT ~ cCFO
If cPAT >> cCFO, then either the profits are
fictitious or the company is selling to any John
Doe for higher sales without having the ability
to collect money from them
10Yr CFO= 71 is >> 10 Yr PAT= 56 cr
Increase in Mcap
in last 10 yrs. >
in last 10 yrs.
Otherwise, company is destroying wealth of
By retained earnings of 48, the market cap increase is 520 thus creating value created for shareholders 10.76
AksharChem (India) Ltd
Sales growth 10YR
- We can see below that AksharChem (India) Ltd is growing at higher sales and profit growth rate than other peer companies.
- The increase in production capacity and sales volume: 2009 (6292 MT) – 2016 (9240MT): – currently board have approved the CAPEX of 175cr for coming 12-18 months for capacity and product portfolio expansion.
- Conversion of profits into cash: 10Yr CFO= 71 is >> 10 yr. PAT= 56 cr
- Creation of value for shareholders from the profits retained: By retained earnings of 48, the market cap increase is 520 thus creating value created for shareholders 10.76
There should not be any information
questioning the integrity of promoters &
Not any kind of fraud was found during web search about promoters
the plan should be in
Salary being paid to potential successors
should be in line with their experience
the promoter should not have a history of seeking
increase in remuneration when the profits of
the company declined in past
Approx. 4.69% of net profit, higher than 2%
Company should have shown good project
execution skills with cost and time overruns
Exclude capacity increase by mergers &
Dividends should be increasing with increase
in profits of the company
Last 4 years the dividend was increasing with the profit of the company
Higher the better
Insider buying ++
If promoter of a company buys its shares,
investors should buy too
Increase from 60% to 70% from 2001 to 2017
the lower the better
Mutual fund- 0.06%
- Salary: salary of promoters in 2015-16 is approx. 75 L against net profit of 16cr which is 4.69% of net profit, higher than the average of 2% of net profit.
- Promoter buying the shares: shareholding of promoters has changed from 60 -70 % over 2011-1016.
- Concern: Issue of Equity Shares on Preferential Basis
- The Company has allotted 1,550,000 Equity Shares of Rs. 10/- each at a premium of Rs. 8.50 per share to Promoters on preferential basis on 25th May 2011 after getting consent from the Shareholders at the Extra Ordinary General Meeting held on 10th May 2011. Page 5 AR 2011-12
- By issue of equity share promoters may have increased the shareholding from 60-72%, please clarify.
- I don’t understand the impact of this on minor shareholders.
- FII shareholding is NIL
OTHER BUSINESS PARAMETERS:
Company should be either a pure play (only
one business segment) or related products.
Pure play model ensures that the
management is specialized in what they are
Entirely different unrelated products/services
are a strict NO. An investor should rather buy
stocks of different companies if she wants
No cap on profit returns or pricing of product
No compulsion to supply to certain clients
- Pure play: AksharChem (India) Ltd is pure play in chemical sector
- Govt. Influence: no interference from government
Margin of Safety:
MoS in Purchase Price
EY > 10 Yr GSec
Higher the EY than 10 Yr G-Sec Yield, the
YES- EY 10 is > G-sec yield
MoS in Business
Higher the SSGR than achieved Sales
Growth, the better
YES- SSGR of 35% > 20 % sales growth
FCF/CFO >> 0
Higher the FCF as proportion of CFO, the
YES – FCF/CFO > 0
- We can see that the self-sustainable growth rate (SSGR) of AksharChem (India) Ltd is about 11-35% over last two years. However, AksharChem (India) Ltd has been growing at about 21% over last 10 years. Comparison of past sales growth with SSGR would indicate that it could fund its entire growth by its profits.
- FCF is one of the key parameters to determine the margin of safety present in the business of any company. After meeting its entire capex it has free cash flow which shows margin of safety.
BBB- & above
Current credit rating should be minimum
rating should have been improving
over the years
Continuous improving- Last rating was revised on 09 Jan 2017 (A+ from A)
The revision in the ratings assigned to the bank facilities of AksharChem (India) Ltd takes into account the significant improvement in its operating profit during H1FY17 on back of increase in sales realizations of its key product, Vinyl Sulphone (VS), due to global short supply and resultant improvement in its leverage and liquidity indicators marked by AIL’s zero net debt position with unencumbered liquid investments exceeding its total debt as on Sept. 30, 2016.
Currently, ban of competitor chemical product from china and approved CAPEX will give high-profit margin and sales growth.
AksharChem (India) Ltd seems to be a company growing at a decent pace of 20%, which has been witnessing steady improvement in the profitability margins due to improvement in the sales mix by focusing more on the high profitability.
AksharChem (India) Ltd has been able to significantly improve its working capital management over the years, which has led it to keep its debt levels under check despite doing significant capex to support the sales growth.
please focus on some doubts.
- Promoters’ shareholding increase by the issue of more shares, the salary of promoters is approx. 4.69%.
- High CAPEX approved by the board of directors about 175 cr over next 12-18 Months and its financial impact on business.
We appreciate the hard work you have put to prepare this report on AksharChem (India) Ltd. The report is useful for any investor who wishes to analyse AksharChem (India) Ltd. I thank you on behalf of all the readers of www.drvijaymalik.com for the time & effort put by you.
An investor needs to keep an important event in the life of AksharChem (India) Ltd while analysing the company for investment. The event relates to the rearrangement of business assets between the group companies: AksharChem (India) Ltd and Asahi Songwon Colours Ltd in FY2015.
Before FY2015, the business of the two companies constituted primarily Vinyl Sulphone in AksharChem (India) Ltd and CPC Blue and CPC Green pigments in Asahi Songwon Colours Ltd. However, in FY2015, the promoter family rearranged the business in a manner that the CPC Green business division of Asahi Songwon Colours Ltd was shifted to AksharChem (India) Ltd.
As a result, from FY2015 onwards, AksharChem (India) Ltd contains Vinyl Sulphone and CPC Green pigment divisions and Asahi Songwon Colours Ltd contains CPC Blue pigment divisions.
We will discuss more about the business rearrangement among the promoter family later in the article, however, it is of importance currently that the financial performance of AksharChem (India) Ltd before and after FY2015 might not be comparable on a sequential basis. This is because of up to FY2014, the financial numbers represent the performance of Vinyl Sulphone alone and from FY2015 onwards, a mix of Vinyl Sulphone and CPC Green pigment.
Moreover, it also presents a good opportunity for the investor to understand the business dynamics of Vinyl Sulphone business division as the financial numbers up to FY2014 are exclusive to Vinyl Sulphone.
In light of this background, let us analyse the past financial performance of AksharChem (India) Ltd:
Financial Analysis of AksharChem:
Until FY2014, AksharChem (India) Ltd has been growing at an average rate of about 20% per annum, however, the growth was interrupted by a period of sudden decline in sales as well as very poor profitability. In fact, AksharChem (India) Ltd hardly made any profits until FY2012. It was making operating losses almost every alternate year. Primarily it is from FY2015 onwards that the company seems to have seen stabilization in its profitability margin.
Based on the above observation, an investor would notice that Vinyl Sulphone previous to FY2012 has been a very gruesome business, which despite year-round efforts of the management was resulting in losses.
The FY2012, directors’ report from the annual report of AksharChem (India) Ltd represents the business situation being faced by the company during this period:
Further Reading: Understanding the Annual Report of a Company
The fact of highly cyclical nature of margins of Vinyl Sulphone business has been highlighted by the credit rating agency CARE in its rating rationale for AksharChem (India) Ltd in March 2015:
The above disclosures coupled with operating losses from past years make is clear to the investor that in the past Vinyl Sulphone has not been a great business to be in. The management of the company has agreed to the same in the conference call held by it in February 2017:
The above section clearly states that in the past Chinese players enjoyed cost advantages on account of lower costs related to following environmental friendly production processes and it was very difficult for Vinyl Sulphone players to make any profit.
However, since last few quarters, the Chinese govt. has changed its stance towards its chemical industry and it has now tightened the environmental regulations around it. As a result, the Chinese players have currently, lost the cost competitive edge. As per the conference call of AksharChem (India) Ltd for February 2017:
As a result, AksharChem (India) Ltd has been able to witness very high operating margins since last few quarters on its Vinyl Sulphone segment resulting in overall high margins for the company. It is the major reason for the sudden increase in profitability margins of the company.
An investor would appreciate that the major risk to such profitability of the company would the resurgence of Chinese manufacturing in future, which might again tilt the scale against AksharChem (India) Ltd.
The management seems very optimistic that it would take at least 10 years for Chinese companies to put their house in order and to again become competitive in the international market, as disclosed in the February 2017 conference call:
However, we believe that instead of taking the management’s view on the face value, an investor should notice that the primary factor leading to previous advantages of the Chinese players and their current disadvantages is the stance of the Chinese government.
An investor should be aware that political dispensations in the countries, as well as their policy stances towards industries, keep on changing continuously. If the future leader of the state in China changes the approach of current government, then the industry situation might go back to the previously prevailing scenario and the supposedly high operating margins of Vinyl Sulphone division might again end up becoming operating losses.
Therefore, we suggest that the investors avoid believing the management without doing their own homework and always take the calculated risk while making investment decisions where the success is dependent upon the changing stance of governments.
Further Reading: How to do Business Analysis of a Company
The other business division of AksharChem (India) Ltd: CPC Green, does not seem to be facing the Chinese competition. As per the management, there is no “Chinese Story” in the pigments business as India is in a very strong position:
As the operating margins of the company have witnessed a marked improvement in the recent quarters, the management is of the view that it would be able to maintain operating profit margins in the range of 27-30% going ahead.
To assess the feasibility of such margins, an investor needs to assess the profitability margins of each of the business segments of AksharChem (India) Ltd: Vinyl Sulphone and CPC Green pigments.
We have analysed above that the profitability margins in the Vinyl Sulphone business seem only due to the changed stance of Chinese Govt towards its chemical industry. Otherwise, the Vinyl Sulphone business would hardly make any profits, as has been the case in the past.
To assess the sustainable margins of the pigment business, an investor should analyse past performance of Asahi Songwon Colours Ltd, which has been a pure play in the pigments segment.
The past performance of Asahi Songwon Colours Ltd indicates that the OPM though cyclical in nature over the years has been around 15-16%. The same OPM levels might be expected to continue ahead for the pigments division of AksharChem (India) Ltd, which forms about 40% of the sales of the company.
To achieve and sustain the operating profitability margins of 25-30% as communicated by the management, AksharChem (India) Ltd needs to earn OPM of 30% on Vinyl Sulphone (60% of sales of company) to achieve OPM of 25% for entire company and needs to earn an OPM of 40% on Vinyl Sulphone to achieve OPM of 30% for entire company.
An investor would recall that the profitability margins of Vinyl Sulphone division had been dismal and erratic in the past bordering on losses and its profitability margins have improved recently only due to the interference of Chinese Govt. Therefore, the profitability margins expected by the management going ahead would depend a lot upon the actions/non-actions of Chinese Govt on its policies towards chemical industry going ahead.
As a result, even though the management seems confident that they would be able to command better margins for next 10 years, we advise that investors should take it with a pinch of salt and keep monitoring the profitability margins closely going ahead.
Further Reading: How to do Financial Analysis of a Company
As far as the visibility of future growth is concerned, the management has mentioned in the February 2017 conference call that AksharChem (India) Ltd is currently using about 73% of the installed capacity of Vinyl Sulphone and about 98% of the installed capacity of pigment division.
To continue supporting the sales growth further, AksharChem (India) Ltd plans to expand its manufacturing capacity further by taking a capital expenditure of ₹175 cr, which should provide the ability to increase revenue going ahead.
An investor would appreciate that the manufacturing processes of chemical industry have a lot of impact on the environment, therefore, obtaining environmental clearance for the planned capacity becomes crucial for any company. As mentioned by the management in the results presentation of February 2017, it takes about 3 years to get environmental clearance.
Moreover, as per the credit rating report for AksharChem (India) Ltd released by CARE Ltd, the company is in an advantageous position as it already has got environmental approval for its future planned capacity.
The tax payout ratio of AksharChem (India) Ltd has been fluctuating in the past until FY2013, till the time it had been reporting dismal financial performance with intermittent losses. However, since FY2014 onwards, the company has been reporting tax payout ratio at the levels of standard corporate tax rate prevailing in India.
Operating Efficiency Analysis of AksharChem (India) Ltd:
While assessing the operating efficiency parameters as well, we need to keep ourselves aware of the addition of CPC Green pigment in its business a few years back as the Vinyl Sulphone and CPC Green pigment have different manufacturing characteristics and they need to be assessed in this light.
The investor may analyse the asset utilization parameters of AksharChem (India) Ltd until FY2014 to understand the characteristics of Vinyl Sulphone business and the asset utilization levels of Asahi Songwon Colors Ltd (in the screenshot shared above) to understand the characteristics of Pigment business.
An investor would notice that the net fixed asset turnover (NFAT) of AksharChem (India) Ltd has been averaging about 5-6 until FY2014, whereas the NFAT of Asahi Songwon Colors Ltd has been around 2-3 over the years. It indicates that the Vinyl Sulphone business has been less capital intensive than the pigment business.
As a result, it is expected that going ahead, the capital intensiveness of AksharChem (India) Ltd would increase. It seems to be the reason that the NFAT of the company has witnessed a decline in last 2 years since when the CPC Green pigment division has been merged with it.
The management has also accepted it in the conference call in February 2017 and stated that going ahead, the company might witness an NFAT of about 2, which would entail much more capital expenditure to fund future growth than what it has been incurring in the past.
When an investor analyses the inventory turnover ratio (ITR) of AksharChem (India) Ltd, then she would observe the similar factors that the ITR of Vinyl Sulphone division has been very high 18-20 in the past (ITR of AksharChem (India) Ltd until FY2014), whereas the ITR of pigment division has been comparatively lower at levels of 8-9 (ITR of Asahi Songwon Colors Ltd).
Therefore, upon merger, the ITR of AksharChem (India) Ltd has witnessed decline to 11 in FY2016. Going ahead as well, the ITR of AksharChem (India) Ltd is expected to remain lower than what it used to achieve until FY2014 and become more working capital intensive than the past.
The same observations stand out when the investor analyses the receivables days of the two different business divisions of AksharChem (India) Ltd. The customers of Vinyl Sulphone used to pay AksharChem (India) Ltd in about 45-50 days in the past, which it has brought down to 27 days in FY2014. However, the customers of the pigment division seem to clear payments in 70-85 days (receivables days of Asahi Songwon Colors Ltd).
As a result of merging of Vinyl Sulphone and pigment division, we notice that the receivables days of AksharChem (India) Ltd have increased from 27 days in FY2014 to 43 days in FY2016 leading to more money getting stuck in the receivables.
Therefore, the assessment of all the operating efficiency parameters: NFAT, ITR and receivables days indicate that going ahead, the business of AksharChem (India) Ltd is expected to witness higher capital intensiveness as well as higher working capital requirements, which would put a stress on the funds requirement and liquidity position of the company going ahead.
Further Reading: 5 Simple Steps to Analyse Operating Performance of Companies
Free Cash Flow Analysis of AksharChem (India) Ltd:
The analysis of free cash flow generation indicates that AksharChem (India) Ltd has been barely able to meet its capital expenditure requirements through internal accruals. The acquisition of CPC Green pigment division was funded by equity dilution as new shares of AksharChem (India) Ltd were given to shareholders of Asahi Songwon Colors Ltd in FY2015 in lieu of the demerger of CPC Green division from it. The payment of this consideration in cash would have stretched the balance sheet of AksharChem (India) Ltd.
In light of the same, it becomes essential that the company maintains the recent trend of improved profitability and moreover also convert the profits into cash. If the assumptions by the management of sustained pricing power to Indian chemical suppliers for next multiple years does not prove good, then we might see the company failing to meet the above described increased funds requirement from internal accrual. This, in turn, might put a stress on the balance sheet strength going ahead.
Therefore, it is essential for the investors to continuously monitor the profitability and working capital management efficiency of the company going ahead.
Further Reading: How to Monitor Stocks in your Portfolio
Investors should be cautious of investing in companies, which might have to fund their expansion plans by raising debt and more so when the companies might not maintain high profitability margins. This is because, in such situations, high debt has the potential of increasing the risk and further reduced profitability under tough business conditions.
You should read the analysis of two other companies: Ahmednagar Forgings Ltd and Amtek India Ltd, to understand the impact low fixed asset turnover can have on the debt levels of companies. You may read their analysis here:
Also Read: Q&A Analysis: Ahmednagar Forgings Ltd
Also Read: Q&A Analysis: Amtek India Ltd
Additional aspects and annual report analysis of AksharChem (India) Ltd:
Upon analysis of AksharChem (India) Ltd, the investor notices multiple other aspects, which deserve attention:
1) Succession planning:
The rearrangement of the business divisions between AksharChem and Asahi seems a way of assets allocation by the mother Ms Paru M. Jaykrishna among her two sons: Mr. Munjal M. Jaykrishna and Mr. Gokul M. Jaykrishna.
Prior to rearrangement, AksharChem had a smaller business of Vinyl Sulphone and Asahi had a larger business of CPC Blue and CPC Green pigments. As a result of the rearrangement effective from FY2015, AksharChem is now vested with Vinyl Sulphone and CPC Green pigment businesses and Asahi is left with CPC Blue business, which seems more or less comparable now.
As a subsequent event, brothers Munjal and Gokul have resigned from the executive positions of each other’s companies on October 9, 2015:
Mr. Munjal M. Jaykrishna resigns from Asahi Songwon Colors Ltd
Mr. Gokul M. Jaykrishna resigns from AksharChem (India) Ltd
The fact that two brothers are now handling the two companies independently has been re-affirmed by Munjal in the February 2017 conference call as well:
Things look good until this point as it seems that the independent business interests have been handed over to each of the brothers by Ms. Paru Jaykrishna and the brother seems to be keen to grow their businesses. This is evident from the recent expansions done by AksharChem (India) Ltd in its capacity of CPC Green and addition of new pigment CPC Violet.
However, if the investor reads the results presentation released by AksharChem (India) Ltd in February 2017, then she notices that it has plans of starting production of CPC Blue pigment:
The investor would appreciate that CPC Blue is the key business remaining in Asahi Songwon Colors Ltd. Therefore, it remains to be seen whether the start of manufacturing of CPC Blue pigment by AksharChem (India) Ltd would pose a competitive threat to Asahi Songwon Colors Ltd and thereby pose the probability of start of business/sibling rivalry among the family or it is a business collaborative decision where the family is still tightly knit.
Therefore, we believe that the investors should be cautious and keep a close watch on the developments related to the management actions of both the companies AksharChem and Asahi to understand whether the brother is moving in confrontational position. This is essential because there have been evidence in the past where the minority shareholders have lost while the majority shareholders/promoters have been busy settling their personal business rivalries using public companies as their means.
Further Reading: How to do Management Analysis of Companies
2) Investment decisions in quoted shares of other companies:
As per FY2016 annual report, AksharChem (India) Ltd has invested about ₹13.2 cr. in shares, which it has classified as quoted shares. There are multiple points which an investor would notice in these investments:
- The list even contains minuscule investments of a few thousand rupees in some of the companies, which questions the seriousness of these investment decisions as being significant value adding to the shareholders of AksharChem (India) Ltd. Eight companies out of the total list of more than 30 companies have investments less than ₹1 lac.
- Multiple companies out of the list have since delisted from the stock exchanges e.g. DCL Finance Ltd, Raymond Synthetic Ltd etc. However, AksharChem (India) Ltd has not got rid of these investments and moreover, is still showing them under quoted investments section. It is uncertain whether AksharChem (India) Ltd is still assuming that it would be able to recover the investments done in such delisted companies out of the total list of investments
- Various companies have undergone name changes e.g. Raymond Synthetic Ltd to Recron Synthetics Ltd, Ipitata Sponge Iron Ltd to Tata Sponge Iron Ltd etc. However, the new names of these companies are yet to be updated in the annual report of AksharChem (India) Ltd. It makes the independent assessment of the current worth of the said quoted investments a bit challenging.
It would have been better that the company would either use these funds in the company operations, to do capital expenditure or distribute it to shareholders.
3) Investment decisions of AksharChem (India) Ltd in its Subsidiaries:
Upon analysis of AksharChem (India) Ltd, an investor would notice that the company in recent past has bought and sold subsidiary companies in quick succession. It pertains to its investments in Akshar Pigments Private Ltd and Chhatral Environment System Private Ltd.
In the case of both these companies, the management has mentioned that these companies were yet to start operations and therefore, it has sold its stake in these companies. However, there does not seem to be any change in the status of these companies since the time AksharChem (India) Ltd invested in these companies some time back.
Therefore, it might be the case that the management might not have put enough thought while making these investment decisions and might have acted in an impulsive manner both at the time of initial investment and then divestment a short time later.
4) High remuneration payments and subsequent recovery of the same from the promoter managers:
The remuneration of promoter management witnessed a steep increase of about 17 times in FY2014 from ₹0.12 cr. in FY2013 to ₹2.12 cr. in FY2014: