Menu

Sign up for More Articles:

Ecomonic Times covered our Investing Journey:

Price Saver Packages:

Investing Resources:

Analysis: Sharda Motor Industries Ltd

Modified on April 4, 2019

The current section of “Analysis” series covers Sharda Motor Industries Ltd, one of the leading manufacturers of the automobile exhaust system, seat frames, seat covers and white goods parts in India.

“Analysis” series is an attempt to share with all the readers, our inputs to the company analysis submitted by readers on the “Ask Your Queries” section of our website.

 

Sharda Motor Industries Ltd Research Report by the Reader (Suranjit Sarkar)

 

Sir,

I have tried to analyze a company named “Sharda Motor Industries Ltd “. Please provide your views/recommendations and valuable feedback.

Regards,

Suranjit

 

About Sharda Motor Industries Limited:

Sharda Motor Industries Limited is primarily engaged in the manufacturing and assembly of auto components and white goods components. The Company serves as a ‘Tier I’ vendor for some of the major automobiles and electronics original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). It has ‘state of art’ manufacturing facilities across thirteen locations in seven states of India. The Company’s product range includes exhaust systems, catalytic converters, suspension systems, sheet metal components and plastic parts for the automotive and white goods industries.

Sharda Motor Industries Ltd sells its products mostly within India with insignificant export income.

The Company has two associate companies:

  1. Bharat Seats Ltd (shareholding: 28.66%)
  2. Relan Industrial Finance Ltd (47.12%)

and two joint ventures (JVs), both having 50% holding each

  1. Toyota Boshoku Relan India Pvt Ltd
  2. Toyo Sharda India Pvt Ltd.

The JVs provide a profit of ₹1 cr and associate companies of ₹8 cr and is materially insignificant compared to the parent company’s operations.

 

Financial analysis of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd:

Sharda Motor Industries Key Financials Trend

Sharda Motor Industries Key Financial Data

  • cCFO>cPAT for 10yrs implies funds not being stuck at WC.
  • Working capital is majorly funded by trade payables, amount written off is very less to nil as they are supplying to a few fixed OEM customers who are funding the working capital by advances.
  • In 10 yrs., Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has generated ₹784 cr cash from its operations, which it used to do capex of ₹422 crs leaving behind free cash of ₹363 crs.
  • In those 10 yrs., Sharda Motor Industries Ltd paid dividends of ₹64 cr, the interest of nearly ₹100 crs, and reduced debt by ₹85 crs and rest remain as cash in the balance sheet. In future, it needs to be seen what the company does with this cash since it has repaid all borrowing now and is completely debt free.
  • In 2018, Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has generated operating cash of ₹156 cr (before tax) and ₹182 cr in 2017
  • Maintenance capex is of nearly ₹22 cr to ₹26 cr out of which ₹10 cr to ₹15 crs spend is in R&D equipment maintenance. Therefore, every year it is generating free cash of ₹120 cr to ₹130 crs.
  • Repaid borrowings of ₹225 cr from 2014, has repaid all borrowings by 2018 and is completely debt free now. The company is paying dividend regularly and the payout can increase after now being debt free.
  • The balance sheet is full of liquid cash. Current financial assets of ₹300 cr (₹105 cr investments and ₹122 cr receivables and ₹74 cr cash)
  • Trade payables are ₹185 cr (which is more than its profits) and inventory is ₹85 cr and ₹122 cr receivables. Very less to nil working capital requirements to run a business.
  • Long-term investments of ₹2 cr (in associate and JVs) which market value is ₹154 cr as on 31 March 2018. Associate companies/JVs are giving decent profits every year (with almost negligible assets).
  • Property, plant and equipment (PPE) of ₹175 cr currently at 2018.

Further advised reading: How to do Financial Analysis of Companies

Sharda Motor Industries Inventory Debtor Days And Fixed Assets Turnover Borrowings

Sharda Motor Industries Ltd was increasing debt from 2009 to 2014 to fund its capex within its capacity and repaid off fully from 2014 to 2018 and currently, it is debt free. Fixed asset turnover is in rising trend after completion of capex. Both debtor days and inventory turnover are steady and stable.

Further advised reading: How to Assess Operating Efficiency of Companies

I think it is mainly because of contracts/arrangements with fixed reliable OEM customers.

Therefore, because of the top three OEM customers, the company is steady in most of the parameters.

Average fixed assets employed by the company in the last 6 yrs. is approximately ₹245 cr and working capital of nearly ₹30 cr. So total assets employed is ₹275 cr (245 +30). In addition, it is generating free cash of ₹130 crs every year implying return more of 45% (130/275).

 

Current profit & loss statement:

  • Revenue = ₹1155 cr,
  • PBT = ₹116 cr,
  • PAT = ₹88 cr,
  • other expense breakup = ₹138 cr (₹58 cr of hire labour charges is the main component followed by ₹13 cr power and fuel, ₹14.44 cr R&D maintenance expense, ₹8 cr of legal expense)
  • What is ₹8 cr of legal expenses? Isn’t it high?

Employee benefit expenses are of ₹82 crs and ₹58 cr of hire labour charges in other expenses suggests the company is hiring labour on contractual basis instead of permanent employees for maybe cost optimization.

  • Finished goods sold (2017, 2016, 2015) in crs
  • Metal parts = 937,833,784
  • Fabric = 201,180,147
  • White goods = 19,21,28
  • Total = ₹1158 cr, ₹1035 cr, ₹960 cr
  • Exports = ₹31 cr (2016), ₹29 cr (2015)

Exports are insignificant compared to indigenous operations. Metal parts constitute nearly 80% of products sold and is main driver of revenue.

Details of raw material and components consumed (2017, 2016, and 2015)

  • Steel = ₹196.33 cr, 189, 177
  • Fabric = ₹139.01 cr, 108, 102
  • Others = ₹327 cr, 299, 285
  • Total ₹662 cr (imported=20%, Indigenous=80% and is generally in that range for previous years also)

As imports are bigger than exports hedging policy is being followed by company and rupee depreciation will affect it adversely which management also mentioned in annual reports.

Sharda Motor Industries Operating Net Profit Margins Cash Flow From Operating Activities SSGR

Upon analysing above table, it seems that Sharda Motor Industries Ltd benefits directly when its raw material (RM) prices decrease which directly flows to its operating profit margin (OPM) and consecutively to net profit margin (NPM). NPM has improved recently as interest reduced due to company repaying debt early. So going forward when RM prices increase, it will directly affect its margins, which can lead to losses as it is at the mercy of huge OEMs and cannot transfer the price rise. Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has repeatedly communicated about this issue in many years. How can we find what type of pricing arrangements it is having with its customers?

Further advised reading: How to do Business Analysis of a Company?

In addition, we can see that self-sustainable growth rate (SSGR) is negative territory to 1% but as money is not being stuck in working capital, therefore, we can correlate that it falls under (C) class of companies in the SSGR article. In such cases, SSGR can’t be considered, as sales are growing at 15% CAGR and PAT as 25% for the last 9 yrs. and the company is debt free generating excess cash than its reported profits.

The company mentioned about their customers in the previous year’s annual report (AR):

2016 AR:

“Your Directors take this opportunity to express their grateful appreciation for the excellent assistance and co-operation received from its customers i.e. M/s. Hyundai Motor India Ltd., M/s Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd., Cummins Power Generation, M/ s. Tata Motors Ltd., and M/s. Bharat Seats Ltd”

2015 AR:

“Your Directors take this opportunity to express their grateful appreciation for the excellent assistance and co-operation received from its customers i.e. Hyundai Motor India Ltd., Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd., M/s. Samsung Electronics India Ltd., M/s. Tata Motors Ltd. and M/s. Bharat Seats Ltd.”

Further advised reading: Understanding the Annual Report of a Company

It seems after 2015 M/s. Samsung Electronics India Ltd ceased to be their customer and added new customer Cummins Power Generation.

Sharda Motor Industries Associates And Joint Venture's Share In Consolidation

From the above table, it seems both associate and JVs are immaterial compared to operations and assets of SMIL.

 

Management analysis of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd:

Shri Ajay Relan and Shri Rohit Relan are sons of Smt. Sharda Relan. Shri R.P. Chowdhry is the father-in-law of Shri Ajay Relan.

Remuneration of the promoters is much on the higher side.

Sharda Motor Industries Promoters Remuneration

2018:

As per the company’s annual report, the remuneration ceiling as per the Companies Act is ₹12.5 cr.

  • Being 10% of net profits of the Company calculated as per section 198 of the Companies Act, 2013 – How do they arrive at this figure?

Aashim Relan (COO and son of Shri Ajay Relan) Graduate in Economics major from “Emory University, Atlanta (U.S.A), 6 years in the company, joined on 28.06.2012, age 27 years, no previous employment is taking ₹1.28 cr as remuneration, which is pretty much high for any fresh joinee. I may be wrong here and it can be corporate rates. Please correct.

2017:

Total promoter remuneration of ₹7.1 cr (that too upon the demise of promoter N.D. Relan from 2 June 2016. Therefore, the remuneration would be much higher than reported) on PAT of ₹60 cr implies 12.8%.

While in the annual report, they have mentioned the ceiling being 10% of profits of ₹8.2 cr as per AR 2017 – How do they arrive at this figure?

  • An average Salary increase of non-managerial personnel is 12%
  • An average Salary increase of managerial personnel is 22%
  • (Shri Ajay Relan remuneration increased by 52%)

2016:

₹5 cr remuneration to promoters against net profit after tax (PAT) of ₹31 cr (16% of PAT)

  • The average increase in remuneration of all employees during the year 2015-16 was 14%,
  • Revenue from operations for 2015-16 has increased by 6%.
  • The Profit before tax increased by 46.5% during the year. However, profit after tax has decreased by 5.26%.

Percentage increase on remuneration of KMP: (i) CFO – 8% (ii) Company Secretary – 11%, (ii) Shri N. D. Relan – 9.98% (iii) Shri Ajay Relan – 10.02%

2015:

The average increase in remuneration of all employees during the year 2014- 15 was 20%. The revenue from operations of 2014-15 increased by 7%. The profit before tax increased by 55.89%.

(ii) Shri N. D. Relan-8% (iii) Shri Ajay Relan-(17%) (iv) Smt. Sharda Relan-89% (v) Shri Rohit Relan-89%

It seems promoters are drawing salary much higher than general remuneration policy followed by other companies.

Further advised reading: Steps to Assess Management Quality before Buying Stocks

During FY 2015, the company has entered into an joint venture agreement with Toyo Seat Company Limited, a foreign body corporate, incorporated in Japan, for the purpose of design, development, evaluation, manufacture and supply of four wheeler seat components including devices and high tensile strength frames for automobiles in India for domestic and export purpose and procurement and export of seat parts from India. A new company namely “Toyo Sharda India Private Limited” has been incorporated.

Sharda Motor Industries Ltd consistently have not spent its due amount in CSR activities citing silly reasons:

  • Amount to be spent for CSR 2018 = ₹1.16 crs
  • Amount unspent = ₹1.05crs

Management explanation: Certain planned projects of capital nature carrying a large amount of expenditure could not be executed due to regulatory and technical hassle.

  • Total Amount to be spent for 2017: ₹64.54 Lakhs
  • Amount unspent: ₹49.54 Lakhs

Management explanation: Reasons for that can be extensive research made by the Company on the different focus areas, identification of the suitable and impactful programs, initiating long-term projects, which could not be capitalized during the year. However, the scale of CSR activities undertaken by the Company during the financial year has significantly increased. CSR spend of the Company during the year has increased by almost 50% vis-a-vis last year (2016).

This was also the case with previous years.

Shri Pradeep Rastogi, Chief Financial Officer of the company, has resigned from the office of Key Managerial Personnel (i.e. CFO) w.e.f. 10 August 2016 and Shri Vivek Bhatia has been appointed as Chief Financial Officer at his place w.e.f. 10 August 2016. It might be a normal thing but it raises a few doubts.

Promoters’ stake is very high at 74% and shares are held in the name of individuals seems very encouraging. Promoters have their own skin in the game and dividends might increase soon.

 

Sale of goods:

Domestic sales are recognized on the transfer of significant risk and rewards of ownership to the customer, which takes place on dispatch of goods to the customers from the factory. Export sales are recognized at the time of the clearance of goods and approval of Government authorities.

So products might be rejected although the accounting might have been done for results although chances may be very less.

Depreciation is provided using the written down value method.

Sharda Motor Industries Useful Life Of Assets For Depreciation

It seems the company has extended the useful life of the plant & machinery beyond as per Companies Act, which will boost profits in terms of lower depreciation rates. Is this valid? However, the company is using the same depreciation method for years. Need your views upon that.

Non-current investments in associate companies (2) and JV (2) of ₹2 crs from 2014 onwards and remains the same. Recently invested Windage Power Company Private Limited in fully paid up 17,500 (March 31, 2017: 5700 and April 01, 2016: Nil) Equity shares of ₹10 each. The company does not mention it as a related party.

Total non-current initial investment of ₹2 cr amounts to the total market value of ₹154 cr now.

Current investments & deposits = ₹114 cr in mutual funds, ₹22 cr of cash and equivalents

Profit share of associate companies = ₹8cr and JVs = ₹1 cr.

One aspect to monitor is what the company does with such amounts of cash. It could not go on capacity expansion and reinvest at such high rates to sustain future growth as its customers are fixed and demand will be driven by them. Whether it will be given to stakeholders or the associate company “Relan industrial finance ltd”, will play the spoilsport needs to be seen.

 

Loans from Promoters:

The company has taken loans earlier from the promoters and related parties but they carried the same interest rates as market rates. The management also communicated this in a transparent manner and gets evident from related parties as well. Currently, no outstanding loan as of 31st March 2018.

Further advised reading: Why Management Assessment is the Most Critical Factor in Stock Investing?

Major Customer: Revenue from three customers of the Company’s manufacturing & trading business are Rs. 928.7cr (March 31, 2017 ₹913.95crs) which is nearly 80% of total revenue. Because of these customers, they are having steady business and steady OPM.

As communicated in the annual report:

“In case of sales, the Company has limited its credit exposure to OEMs and dealers by providing a maximum payment period up to 60 days. However, Company need not required to provide for any risk allowance on account of trade receivable being bad and not recoverable as the amount of outstanding pertaining to trade receivables, which exceeds the credit period allowed by the Company is less than 2% of the total outstanding from them. Trade payables are non-interest bearing and are normally settled on 90-day terms”

This may be the reason for having very less working capital requirements and stable cash flow business in spite of being in a cyclical industry. As write-offs are nil, CFO is more than PAT and long order visibility due to heavy reliance on these OEMs. This is a double-edged sword and it could devastate the company if any customer moves out.

 

Contract between associate companies and parent company:

It seems it is in all types of transactions with Bharat Seats Ltd.

Relan Industrial finance is in stockbroking services and is using parent company’s cash for broking in stock markets. Although broking is a commission based business but much a case of concern and risk of burning cash. Would like to know your views on that.

Sharda Motor Industries Associates Limit Of Related Party Transactions

As per the Independent Auditors’ Report:

“According to the information and explanations given to us, discrepancies noticed on such verification between physical stocks and the book records were not material and these have been properly dealt with in the books of account.”

“Further, there were no undisputed outstanding statutory dues as on the last day of the financial year concerned for a period of more than six months from the date they became payable except duty of custom of Rs.6.59 lakhs”

Further advised reading: Understanding the Annual Report of a Company

The same pending amount in from 2015 but no explanation is given in the annual report.

1) The company has taken leases from its promoters and related parties. How to find out whether the rates are as per market rates? Although other two leases have expired and not renewed except lease from M/s. Sharda Enterprises. Lease Agreement was renewed on 01.07.2015 and is valid until 30.06.2020.

  • The Company had taken a guesthouse on non-cancellable lease from Smt. Sharda Relan. Lease Agreement was valid until 31.01.2017. Lease Rental amounting to ₹50.25 Lakhs (March 31, 2016: ₹60.10 Lakhs) has been debited to Statement of Profit and Loss. No lease renewal after that.
  • The Company has taken a Factory Premises on non-cancellable lease from M/s. Sharda Enterprises. Lease Agreement is valid until 17.10.2017. Lease Rental amounting to ₹84.42 Lakhs (March 31, 2016: ₹84.14 Lakhs) has been debited to Statement of Profit and Loss
  • The Company had taken a Factory Premises on non-cancellable lease from M/s. Sharda Auto Solutions Pvt Ltd. Lease Agreement was valid till 30.06.2016. Lease Rental amounting to ₹10.25 Lakhs (March 31, 2016: ₹43.74 Lakhs) has been debited to Statement of Profit and Loss.

Sharda Motor Industries Rent Paid During The Year

2) The company has purchased ₹5 cr worth assets from Toyo Sharda and ₹2 cr worth assets from Bharat Seals Ltd. Is it purchasing at a higher rate than other market sources or is SMIL is getting any benefits from buying from these related party companies. How to get this information about what products and what rates they are buying/selling?

Sharda Motor Industries Advance Received And Purchases

3) Loans taken from related parties seem in line with as management said earlier i.e. at 8-9% interest rates.

Sharda Motor Industries Loan Taken From Related Parties

4) SMIL is supposed to receive ₹30 crs from Bharat Seals Ltd (associate company). It seems it is recurring in nature due to its contract/arrangements of such with the associate company.

Sharda Motor Industries Receivables From Bharat Seats Ltd

In case of Toyo Sharda India Private Limited, the joint venture, depreciation on property, plant and equipment has been provided on the straight-line method, which is inconsistent with the written down value method of depreciation used in case of SMIL. However, it is impracticable to harmonize; therefore, adjustment for the same has not been made in the consolidated financial statements.

 

Business analysis of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd:

As per company AR 2018:

The industry forecasts the sales growth of passenger vehicles in FY19 at 8-10 per cent, with utility vehicles growing at 14-15 per cent and cars up between 8-9 per cent in the domestic market. The revenue growth of auto ancillaries is expected to be at 11-13% for FY2019, given healthy growth expected across key automotive sub-segments. It would maintain 10-12% long term (5 year) CAGR as expected out of Indian auto component industry. India is expected to become the 4th largest automobiles producer globally by 2020 after China, US & Japan. The auto components industry is also expected to become the 3rd largest in the world by 2025.

As the recent report by Automotive Component Manufacturers Association of India (ACMA) informs that the Indian auto components industry is quite close to a turnover of $100 billion by 2020 because of improved exports, which is expected to reach almost $100 billion by 2026, nearly 10-times higher than the current export value.

(10 times in 8 years seems impossible)

2017 excerpt:

According to the Automotive Component Manufacturers Association of India (ACMA), the Indian auto-components industry is expected to register a turnover of US$ 100 billion by 2020 backed by strong exports ranging between US$ 80- US$ 100 billion by 2026, from the current US$ 11.2 billion.

(Nine times within 9 years seems unsustainable and false).

The auto components industry of India is 20 times bigger employer than original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), and its share in the country’s annual GDP is almost 7 per cent. Auto component manufacturers are afraid of the government’s plans for electric vehicles, and it seems this transition may affect with the future goals of the industry. Usually, an internal combustion engine (ICE) of most of the cars works on more than 2,000 moving parts, but the engine of an electric vehicle doesn’t require more than 20 similar parts / components.

Further advised reading: How to do Business Analysis of a Company?

 

Risks to the business as acknowledged by management:

Indian auto component industry are closely linked with stiff overseas competition from foreign players who are playing at large scale and giving price competition to the local manufacturers, low Product differentiation, bargaining power of both the suppliers and clients is also affecting the industry, uncertainty arising from currency volatility, low-priced imports, counterfeit parts and oil pricing, volatility in the price of raw materials and other inputs.

Operational risks like shortage of power, which leads to increase in cost of production rupees depression at the time of import are major concern for the business. In addition to this, demand of auto component sector is dependent on the automobile sector, which makes the market uncertain at times, stringent emission norms, high market share of unorganized sector etc.

Excerpts from the annual report:

“Input costs on account of commodities like steel, non-ferrous, precious metals, rubber and petroleum products have risen over the year and resulted in higher input costs. While the Company Continues to pursue cost reduction initiatives, rises in commodity prices and other costs resulting from inflationary pressures, could impact the Company’s profitability to the extent that the same are not absorbed by the market through price increases and/or could have a negative impact on the demand. In addition, because of intense price competition and the high level of fixed costs, the Company may not be able to adequately address changes in commodity prices even if they are foreseeable. The operations of the Company are directly dependent on the Automobile manufacturer’s (OEMs) growth and business plans. General economic conditions impact the automotive industry, and in turn, the operations as well”

Promoter seems transparent about the business risk.

Further advised reading: Understanding the Annual Report of a Company

 

Few other points to note from 2014 annual report:

“A patent is filed on muffler new technology. We are becoming the best supplier of Mahindra & Mahindra. Three new businesses of HYUNDAI are awarded without SEJONG support. Cummins business share increased. TATA is considering us for all forth coming programs.

We are currently approaching all OEMs to consider us for converter design and converter internal buying, which will increase three fold of the company’s current revenue.

The Company during the year 2014 has made exports of exhaust muffler, silencer, exhaust pipe and parts of motor vehicle for Rs. 27.82 crs. The Company is also taking initiatives to explore export market for other products being manufactured by the Company”

 

Valuation analysis of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd:

The company is trading at PE multiple of 11 which is below its historical average PE band and does provide a margin of safety.

Further advised reading: How to do Valuation Analysis of Companies

It has current investments of ₹105 cr and non-current investment of ₹2 cr which market value is approx. ₹150 crs and cash of nearly ₹75 crs totalling to ₹330 crs (105+150+75) of liquid cash. It has current property plant & equipment (PPE) of ₹175 cr.

It implies that we are getting assets of nearly ₹500 cr (330 +175) nearly 53% of current market capitalization and a business which is generating ₹100-120 crs of free cash flow every year. It is trading at a market capitalization of ₹945 cr.

If we consider all this we are getting this business at 3 to 4 times of PE, which I believe offers a huge margin of safety.

Further advised reading: 3 Simple Ways to Assess “Margin of Safety”: The Cornerstone of Stock Investing

Regards,

Suranjit

 

 

Author’s Response

 

Hi Suranjit,

Thanks for sharing the analysis of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd with us! We appreciate the time & effort put in by you in the analysis.

Let us analyse the performance of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd over the last 10 years.

While analyzing the past financial performance data of the company, an investor would notice that until FY2012, Sharda Motor Industries Ltd used to disclose both standalone as well as consolidated financials. This is because, the company had a wholly owned subsidiary, Sharda Sejong Auto components (India) Limited, which it, later on, merged with itself. As a result, from FY2013 to FY2015, the company reported only standalone financials.

Since FY2016 onwards, Sharda Motor Industries Ltd again started reporting both standalone and consolidated financials to incorporate the impact of performance of its associate companies: Bharat Seats Limited, Relan Industrial Finance Limited and its joint ventures: Toyota Boshoku Relan India Private Limited and Toyo Sharda India Private Limited.

We believe that while analysing any company, the investor should always look at the company as a whole and focus on financials, which represent the business picture of the entire group. Therefore, while analysing Sharda Motor Industries Ltd, we have analysed consolidated financials from FY2009-FY2012, standalone financials from FY2013-FY2015 and consolidated financials from FY2016 onwards until FY2018.

Further advised reading: Standalone vs Consolidated Financials: A Complete Guide

Sharda Motor Industries Financials FY2009 18

 

Financial and Business Analysis of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd:

While analyzing the financials of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd, an investor would note that in the past, the company has been able to grow its sales at a rate of 5-10% year on year. Sales of the company increased from ₹453 cr. in FY2009 to ₹1,155 cr in FY2018. While analysing the profitability of the company, an investor would notice that the operating profit margin (OPM) of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has been consistent over the years in the range of 8-10%, which has improved recently in FY2018 to 13%.

Sharda Motor Industries Ltd operates in the auto-ancillary industry, which is highly dependent on the automobile industry. An investor would appreciate that the automobile industry is a cyclical business, which witnesses its growth associated with the growth phases of the overall economy. Because of the cyclical nature of the customer industry (automobiles), the auto-ancillary business also witness cyclical phases in their business. This is because the automobile manufacturers are very large corporations when compared to their vendors/suppliers (auto-ancillary players).

Automobile manufacturers have higher negotiating power over suppliers and as a result, they are able to push tough contractual terms on their suppliers. It results in continuous pressure on the prices the suppliers are able to get from automobile manufacturers. Such cyclical characteristic of the business of auto-ancillary companies along with weak negotiating position usually reflects in the nature of fluctuating profit margins.

Investors would be able to recollect fluctuating profit margins in case of Gandhi Special Tubes Ltd, which is an auto-ancillary player, which supplies steel tubes including fuel injection tubes to the automobile manufacturers.

Further advised reading: Analysis: Gandhi Special Tubes Ltd

Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has also communicated to its shareholders that it faces continuous pressure from automobile manufacturers to reduce the prices of its products. The pricing pressure from the customers along with the volatility in the prices of the raw material is considered a threat by the company.

FY2015 annual report, page 53:

Sharda Motor Industries FY2015 Pricing Pressure From OEM Change In Raw Material Prices

The credit rating agency, CRISIL in its report of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd in August 2014, highlighted the challenge faced by the company from raw material prices and pricing pressure from its customers:

Sharda Motor Industries 2014 Crisil Pricing Pressure From OEM Change In Raw Material Prices

Further advised reading: Credit Rating Reports: A Complete Guide for Stock Investors

From the above discussion, an investor would anticipate that the profit margin of any auto-ancillary player like Sharda Motor Industries Ltd would be very fluctuating in nature as had been the case of Gandhi Special Tubes Ltd. However, in the case of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd, the investor would notice that the operating profit margin (OPM) has been stable and improving over the years. The OPM has improved from 8% in FY2011 to about 13% in FY2018.

An investor would notice that the net profit margin (NPM) of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has also witnessed similar improvement over the years. The NPM has improved from 2% in FY2009 to 8% in FY2018.

Further advised reading: How to do Financial Analysis of Companies

Such a trend in the profitability is in sharp contrast to the expected performance of any auto-ancillary company. As a result, an investor should analyse the company further to understand the reason for the stability/improvement of profitability of the company.

While analysing multiple documents related to the company, an investor gets to know that the improvement of the profit margins of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd over the years is a result of multiple factors:

 

1) Price revisions received from its customers (automobile manufacturers):

While analysing the February 2017 credit rating report of the company prepared by CRISIL, an investor gets to know that Sharda Motor Industries Ltd is able to receive price revisions from its customers. The report mentions that such price revision comes with a time lag meaning that if the raw material prices increase now, then Sharda Motor Industries Ltd get higher prices from its customers after a few months/quarters. Nevertheless, such price increases allow the company to maintain its profitability.

Sharda Motor Industries 2017 Crisil Price Increase Comes With A Lag

Further advised reading: How to do Business Analysis of a Company?

 

2) Improving operating efficiencies in business operations:

Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has been working towards improving its operating efficiencies process automation and material management, which in turn leads to lower wastage. These efforts lead to better operating profit margins and in turn, reduce its vulnerability from an increase in raw material prices and the pricing pressure from its customers.

An investor gets to know about these measures taken by the company from the credit rating report of the company prepared by CRISIL in August 2013:

Sharda Motor Industries 2013 Crisil Lower Vulnerability To Raw Material Prices And Pricing Pressure From Customers

Further advised reading: How to Assess Operating Efficiency of Companies

 

3) Focus on research and development activities:

While analysing past annual reports of the company, an investor would notice that Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has been continuously spending about 1.5% of its sales revenue on research & development. Over the last eight years (FY2011-18), the company has spent in excess of ₹100 cr on research and development.

Sharda Motor Industries FY2011 2018 Spending On Research And Development

Further advised reading: Understanding the Annual Report of a Company

The focus on research and development has produced multiple benefits for the company, which included the process improvements leading to better control over its operating margins discussed earlier.

As per the August 2013 credit rating report of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd prepared by CRISIL:

Sharda Motor Industries 2013 Crisil High Research And Development Spending

The company received a rating upgrade from A to A+ by CRISIL in October 2015 where the credit rating agency has pointed out continuous focus on research and development and its benefits in controlling costs as one of the factors for the increase in credit rating.

Sharda Motor Industries 2015 Crisil Continuous Research And Development Spending Reason For Upgrade

An investor would appreciate that an upgrade in credit rating leads to a lowering of interest rates for the company, which in turn leads to improvement in profit margins.

Further advised reading: Credit Rating Reports: A Complete Guide for Stock Investors

 

4) Sharda Motor Industries Ltd ready with BS-VI products due to its research and development activities:

Because of the continuous focus on research and development, Sharda Motor Industries Ltd is ready with upgraded products, which meet the requirement of new Bharat Stage – VI (BS-VI) emission norms. These new BS-VI ready products are being sold to automobile manufacturers at higher prices.

Credit rating report by CRISIL, February 2017:

Sharda Motor Industries 2017 Crisil BS VI 6 Products Sold At Higher Prices

This is in sharp contrast to another auto-ancillary player analysed by us, Gandhi Special Tubes Ltd, which does not have BS-VI compliant version of its current products and as a result, faces a significant risk to its business in near future.

From the above discussion, an investor would notice that Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has been able to get comparatively better terms from automobile manufacturers than other auto-ancillary players. Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has spent significant money on research and development activities and as a result, it has benefited from process improvements leading to lower costs and BS-VI ready products leading to higher pricing from customers. Therefore, an investor would appreciate that Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has been able to have better control on its profit margins.

While analysing the tax payout of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd over the years, an investor would notice that in most of the years, the tax payout ratio is in line with standard corporate tax rate prevalent in India. In certain years, the tax payout ratio is significantly different like FY2012 (9%), FY2013 (40%) and FY2015 (-5%). While analysing these the annual reports for these years, the investor would notice that the key reasons for such divergences are “Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) credits” and “deferred tax adjustments”.

Advised reading: How to calculate Deferred Tax Assets

FY2013 annual report, page 35:

Sharda Motor Industries FY2013 FY2012 MAT Deferred Tax Adjustments

FY2015 annual report, page 61:

Sharda Motor Industries FY2015 MAT Deferred Tax Adjustments

Investors may contact the company directly to get further clarifications for the tax payout ratio.

Advised reading: How should investors contact Companies/Management for clarifications or additional information?

 

Operating Efficiency Analysis of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd:

Net fixed asset turnover (NFAT) of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd:

When an investor analyses the net fixed asset turnover (NFAT) of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd over last 10 years (FY2009-18), then she notices that the NFAT of the company witnessed a continuous decline over the initial years and later on, it witnessed a continuous increase. NFAT declined from 4.23 in FY2010 to 2.94 in FY2014. However, thereafter, NFAT increased from 2.94 in FY2014 to 6.03 in FY2018.

An investor would appreciate that the decline in the NFAT in the initial period during FY2009-14 coincides with the capital expenditure of about ₹300 cr done by the company in FY2010-14.

In FY2010, Sharda Motor Industries Ltd had eight manufacturing plants whereas by FY2014, the company had increased the number of plants to 13.

FY2010 annual report, page 23:

Sharda Motor Industries FY2010 Plant Locations

FY2014 annual report, page 28:

Sharda Motor Industries FY2014 Plant Locations

An investor would appreciate that whenever a company invests in manufacturing plants, then it usually takes some time for the plants to be operationalized and then reach optimal capacity utilization. During this phase of reaching optimal utilization, the company would have already done all the investment but the benefits in terms of higher sales would take time to come. Therefore, during such phases, companies usually witness declining asset turnover ratios (e.g. NFAT).

Post FY2014, Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has not done any major capital expenditure whereas the company has benefited from higher sales from the plants operationalized during FY2010-14. As a result, the company has witnessed good improvement in NFAT.

 

Inventory turnover ratio of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd:

An investor would note that over the years, the inventory turnover ratios (ITR) of the Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has been ranging from 11-13, which has recently improved to 14.7 in FY2018.

Such a trend of ITR indicates that the company has kept its inventory management under control and as a result, not allowed money to be unnecessarily stuck in working capital. This is in line with the discussion above where we noticed that Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has generated many process improvements due to research and development, which led to improvement in operating profit margins.

Read on: How to Assess Operating Efficiency of Companies

 

Analysis of receivables days of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd:

An investor would notice that over the years, receivables days of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd have declined from 45 days in FY2010 to 36 days in FY2018.

Declining receivables days indicate that Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has been able to negotiate improving credit terms with its customers. This can be a probable result of its focus on product improvement by research and development. Research and development activities have led to the ready availability of BS-VI compliant products that are sold at a premium price to the customer.

Sharda Motor Industries 2017 Crisil BS VI 6 Products Sold At Higher Prices

An investor would appreciate that the focus of the company on continuous improvement of its products and the efforts to stay ready with the future requirements of its customers (BS-VI) has led to improving operational efficiencies for the company.

An analysis of receivables days along with inventory turnover indicates that Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has been able to keep its working capital requirements stable and under control. It means that Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has been able to convert its profits into the cash flow from operations without the money being stuck in working capital. An investor observes the same while comparing the cumulative net profit after tax (cPAT) and cumulative cash flow from operations (cCFO) of the company for FY2009-18.

An investor would notice that over FY2009-18, Sharda Motor Industries Ltd Limited has reported a total cumulative net profit after tax (cPAT) of ₹349 cr. whereas during the same period, it reported cumulative cash flow from operations (cCFO) of ₹756 cr indicating that it has converted its profits into cash. The cCFO of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd is significantly higher than its cPAT primarily because of high depreciation (₹367 cr) and interest expenses (₹99 cr), which are deducted while calculating PAT, while these are added back to PAT when calculating CFO.

It is advised that investors should read the article on CFO calculation mentioned below, which would help them understand the situations in which companies tend to have the CFO lower than their PAT and the situations when the companies tend to have CFO higher than their PAT.

Further advised reading: Understanding Cash Flow from Operations (CFO)

 

Margin of Safety in the Business of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd:

Self-Sustainable Growth Rate (SSGR):

Further advised reading: Self Sustainable Growth Rate: a measure of Inherent Growth Potential of a Company

Upon reading the SSGR article, an investor would appreciate that if a company is growing at a rate equal to or less than the SSGR and it is able to convert its profits into cash flow from operations, then it would be able to fund its growth from its internal resources without the need of external sources of funds.

Conversely, if any company attempts to grow its sales at a rate higher than its SSGR, then its internal resources would not be sufficient to fund its growth aspirations. As a result, the company would have to rely on additional sources of funds like debt or equity dilution to meet the cash requirements to generate its target growth.

An investor would notice that Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has witnessed an SSGR ranging from -9% to 2% over the years. While studying the formula for calculation of SSGR, an investor would understand that the SSGR directly depends on the net profit margin (NPM) of a company.

SSGR = NFAT * NPM * (1-DPR) – Dep

Where,

  • SSGR = Self Sustainable Growth Rate in %
  • Dep = Depreciation rate as a % of net fixed assets
  • NFAT = Net fixed asset turnover (Sales/average net fixed assets over the year)
  • NPM = Net profit margin as % of sales
  • DPR = Dividend paid as % of net profit after tax

(For systematic algebraic calculation of SSGR formula: Click Here)

As the NPM of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has been very low consistently in the range of 2-4%, therefore, the company has a low SSGR. The SSGR has increased recently because of a sharp increase in the profit margins in FY2016-2018.

The sales growth achieved by the company over the years is 5-10%, which is higher than its SSGR. Therefore, investors would expect that the company would have to raise debt from additional sources to fund its growth. However, in the case of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd, the company has repaid all its debt in FY2018 and has become debt-free.

While reading the SSGR article shared above, the investor would notice that we have highlighted a situation (Case C), where companies that have SSGR less than the current growth rate but still manage to reduce debt over the years. In such cases, efficient working capital management ensures that the company has a significant amount of CFO, which is not stuck in the working capital needs of the company. As a result, the cash is available from the internal sources for the capital expenditure needed for growth and reduce debt.

An investor is able to observe this aspect of the company’s business when she analyses the cumulative cash flow position including free cash flow for the company over the last 10 years (FY2009-18).

 

Free Cash Flow Analysis of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd:

While looking at the cash flow performance of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd, an investor notices that during FY2009-18, the company had a cumulative cash flow from operations of ₹756 cr. However, during this period it did a capital expenditure (capex) of ₹368 cr. As a result, it had a free cash flow of ₹388 cr. (756 – 368).

Further advised reading: Free Cash Flow: A Complete Guide to Understanding FCF

While analysing the past annual reports of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd, an investor would notice that the company has used this FCF in various manners:

  1. Dividend payments to the shareholders: The company has used the FCF to pay a dividend of about ₹60 cr. (excluding dividend distribution tax) to the shareholders.
  2. Reduction of debt: Sharda Motor Industries Ltd used the FCF to reduce its debt by ₹92 cr over the years. It used to have a total debt of ₹92 cr in FY2009 whereas it is debt-free in FY2018.
  3. Investment in financial assets/ joint venture/ associates: At March 31, 2018, Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has cash & investments of about ₹209 cr, which includes the investments of about ₹30 cr done in joint ventures and associate companies.

Free cash flow (FCF) is one of the main pillars of assessing the margin of safety in the business model of any company.

Further advised reading: 3 Simple Ways to Assess “Margin of Safety”: The Cornerstone of Stock Investing

 

Additional aspects of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd:

On analysing Sharda Motor Industries Ltd, an investor comes across certain other aspects of the company:

 

1) Management Succession of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd:

While analysing the annual reports of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd, an investor notices Mr. Aashim Relan who is the son of Mr. Ajay Relan (MD of the company), joined the company in 2012 and is currently working as Chief Operating Officer (COO).

It indicates that the company has put in place a management succession plan in which the new generation of the promoter family is being groomed in business while the senior members of the promoter family are still playing an active part in the day-to-day activities.

Presence of a well thought out management succession plan is essential in case of promoter run businesses as it provides for smooth transition of leadership over the generations and provides continuity in the business operations of any company.

Further advised reading: Steps to Assess Management Quality before Buying Stocks

 

2) Remuneration of promoters of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd:

While reading the FY2017 annual report, an investor notices that on June 2, 2016, the promoter of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd Mr. N. D. Relan expired and thereafter his wife Ms. Sharda Relan at the age of 81 years was appointed an executive director of the company on August 10, 2016.

Sharda Motor Industries FY2017 Remuneration Of ND Relan And Sharda Relan

An investor would notice that in FY2018, Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has paid a remuneration of ₹4.64 cr to Ms. Sharda Relan.

Sharda Motor Industries FY2018 Remuneration Of Sharda Relan

However, while going through the “Management Team” section of the website of the company, the investor notices that the name of Ms. Sharda Relan does not appear in the list of key management personnel. The “Management Team” section of the website highlights the following eight personnel:

  1. Ajay Relan (Managing Director)
  2. Aashim Relan (Chief Operating Officer)
  3. Vivek Bhatia (CFO)
  4. Sanjiv Kumar Yogi (Chief Purchasing Officer)
  5. Sitangshu Goswami (President – Sales & Strategy)
  6. Pradeep Rastogi (Legal & Strategic Affairs)
  7. Nitin Vishnoi (Company Secretary & Compliance Officer)
  8. Abinash Upadhayay (Chief People Officer)

Sharda Motor Industries Key Management Personnel

The above assessment indicates that Sharda Motor Industries Ltd is not highlighting one of the highest paid employees on its website as the key management personnel. This might seem in contrast to the principle of remuneration in proportion to the value added to the company. An investor may also interpret the above situation as a case where the company has merely shifted the remuneration, which was being paid to Mr. ND Relan to the account of Ms. Sharda Relan.

Further advised reading: Why Management Assessment is the Most Critical Factor in Stock Investing?

The total amount of remuneration taken by senior promoters (ND Relan, Sharda Relan and Ajay Relan) has increased consistently over the years.

Sharda Motor Industries Remuneration Of Senior Promoters

While analysing the past annual reports of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd, an investor would notice that the promoters have been taking home the maximum possible remuneration allowed by the statutory limits.

In FY2010, the overall limit for remuneration to the directors was ₹36,382,914/- while the remuneration taken was ₹36,248,734/-. FY2011 annual report, page 47:

Sharda Motor Industries FY2010 Management Remuneration

The above table also shows the method/calculation for arriving at the maximum permissible remuneration of promoters/directors for any company.

In FY2011, the overall limit for remuneration to the directors was ₹31,128,889/- while the remuneration taken was ₹31,433,330/-. FY2011 annual report, page 47:

Sharda Motor Industries FY2011 Management Remuneration

In March 2014, Sharda Motor Industries Ltd proposed for paying minimum remuneration to promoters irrespective of low profits in the year by taking central govt. approval.

Sharda Motor Industries FY2014 Approval For Minimum Management Remuneration

Thereafter, Sharda Motor Industries Ltd started paying remuneration higher than the stipulated limits by taking approval from central govt.

FY2015 annual report, page 36:

Sharda Motor Industries FY2015 Remuneration After Central Govt Approval

FY2016 annual report, page 40:

Sharda Motor Industries FY2016 Remuneration After Central Govt Approval

Further advised reading: Understanding the Annual Report of a Company

Based on the above discussion, an investor may observe that the promoters of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd have ensured that they receive remuneration, which is higher than the statutory limits by taking approval from central govt. approval irrespective of the business performance of the company. Moreover, investors would observe that Sharda Motor Industries Ltd seems to have shifted the high remuneration being paid to Mr. ND Relan to the account of Ms. Sharda Relan after his demise. The company is not highlighting Ms. Sharda Relan as key management personnel on its website despite paying ₹4.64 cr as remuneration to her in FY2018.

Investors may keep these aspects in mind while analysing Sharda Motor Industries Ltd.

 

3) Costlier loans taken from related parties by Sharda Motor Industries Ltd than the loans from financial institutions:

While analysing the past annual reports, an investor would notice that Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has year after year taken loans from related parties/promoters.

FY2010 annual report, page 35:

Sharda Motor Industries FY2009 FY2010 Loans From Related Parties

FY2012 annual report, page 65:

Sharda Motor Industries FY2011 FY2012 Loans From Related Parties

FY2014 annual report, page 47:

Sharda Motor Industries FY2013 FY2014 Loans From Related Parties

FY2016 annual report, page 75:

Sharda Motor Industries FY2015 FY2016 Loans From Related Parties

FY2018 annual report, page 74:

Sharda Motor Industries FY2016 FY2017 FY2018 Loans From Related Parties

Therefore, an investor would note that the promoters/related parties have continuously lent money to Sharda Motor Industries Ltd and earned interest on the same from the company.

Sharda Motor Industries Loans From Related Parties

While assessing the interest rate, which is paid by Sharda Motor Industries Ltd on these loans to related parties viz-a-viz loans from other financial institutions, the investor notices that the interest rate on these loans from related parties has been continuously higher than the interest rate on the loans provided by financial institutions.

FY2014 annual report, page 44, 45 & 47:

Sharda Motor Industries FY2014 Promoter Loan At Higher Interest Rate

FY2016 annual report, page 72 & 75:

Sharda Motor Industries FY2016 Promoter Loan At Higher Interest Rate

Therefore, an investor may interpret that Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has access to cheaper sources of funding from other financial institutions. However, it continued to rely on the loans from promoters/related parties to meet its cash flow requirements.

Investors may keep in mind that availing costlier loans from related parties when other cheaper sources of funds are available to any company may seem an attempt to shift disproportionate economic value from the company to the related parties/promoters.

Further advised reading: Why Management Assessment is the Most Critical Factor in Stock Investing?

 

4) Year on year depreciation expense of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd seems high:

As per FY2018 annual report, page 57, under the new Indian Accounting Standards (IndAS), the company has estimated the life of plant & machinery to be 20 years. As per the Companies Act 2013, the useful life of plant & machinery has been stipulated as 15 years.

Sharda Motor Industries FY2018 Useful Life Of Plant And Machinery

IndAS is an attempt to align Indian account standards with the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), the management of a company is permitted to use its discretion on the estimation of the useful life of assets based on its own assessment.

Therefore, an investor would assume that on an average about 5% (=1/20) to 6.66% (=1/15) of the value of plant & machinery will be depreciated every year in the profit & loss statement.

However, when an investor notices the depreciation charged by Sharda Motor Industries Ltd on plant & machinery, then she notices that the depreciation expense is very high than 5%-6.66%.

The fixed assets schedule in the FY2018 annual report, page 57 shows that on plant & machinery Sharda Motor Industries Ltd expensed following depreciation amount:

  • In FY2017, depreciation of ₹31.2 cr on plant & machinery of about ₹117-120 cr, which is a depreciation exceeding 25%
  • In FY2018, depreciation of ₹26.4 cr on plant & machinery of about ₹125-130 cr, which is a depreciation exceeding 20%

Sharda Motor Industries FY2017 FY2018 Depreciation Expense

Further advised reading: Understanding the Annual Report of a Company

By looking at the above data, it seems that the company is depreciating its plant & machinery at a rate of 20-25% every year. Such a rate of depreciation may indicate that the useful life of plant & machinery is only 4-5 years.

An investor would appreciate that a high depreciation will bring down profit before tax and in turn will reduce the amount of tax liability of the company.

Investors may contact Sharda Motor Industries Ltd and seek clarification for the reasons of such seemingly high depreciation expense indicating very low useful life of plant & machinery when compared with its stated accounting policies.

Advised reading: How should investors contact Companies/Management for clarifications or additional information?

 

5) Family dispute in promoters leading to division of the business in Ajay Relan and Rohit Relan groups:

It seems that Ajay Relan and Rohit Relan, who are the two sons of promoter N.D. Relan, have been fighting in National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) for the last couple of years for their disputes including ownership of businesses. In February 2019, the two brothers have agreed to divide the overall business into two divisions:

  • Rohit Relan group will control the automobile seating business of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd constituting 26.38% of the total turnover and the stake of the company in Bharat Seats Limited, Toyota Boshoku Relan India Private Limited and Toyo Sharda India Private Limited

BSE announcement dated March 9, 2019, page 3:

Sharda Motor Industries Turnover Of The Seating Division To Be Given To Rohit Relan Group

BSE announcement dated February 23, 2019, page 2:

Sharda Motor Industries Stake In JVs To Be Given To Rohit Relan Group

  • Ajay Relan group to retain rest of the business of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd under its control.

The Rohit Relan group plans to control its businesses via a new company NDR Auto Components Limited (NDRACL), which will be formed initially as a wholly owned subsidiary of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd. Later on, all the shareholders of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd (SMIL) will be given proportionate shareholding in NDR Auto Components Limited.

Thereafter, the promoters will switch their shareholding in the companies by way of gift/transfer etc. and the public shareholders will end up owning the same shareholding in NDRACL as well as SMIL.

BSE announcement dated March 9, 2019, page 5:

NDR Auto Components Limited Will Give Shares To Each Shareholder Of Sharda Motor Industries

Therefore, it seems that at the time of division of the business between the two factions of the promoter family, the public shareholders will have the same interest in the business but now divided into two companies: NDR Auto Components Limited (NDRACL) and Sharda Motor Industries Ltd (SMIL). As a result, it seems that for the public shareholders, the family arrangements do not affect the existing economic value.

 

6) Disputes with joint venture partners of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd:

While reading past annual reports of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd, an investor notices that its joint venture Toyota Boshoku Relan India (P) Ltd has not paid ₹8.62 lac since 2015.

FY2015 annual report, page 88:

Sharda Motor Industries FY2015 Receivables From Joint Venture

FY2018 annual report, page 70:

Sharda Motor Industries FY2018 Receivables From Joint Venture

Investors may appreciate that the amount involved in this issue is a small amount. However, the fact that a small amount is outstanding from the joint venture since last 4 years and is being disclosed as pending in the annual reports year after year indicates that there might be some dispute/larger issue in the JV partners in their understanding/co-operation.

We believe that investors should assess such situations to ascertain whether there are underlying disputes/deteriorating relations between the joint venture partners.

An investor may note that Sharda Motor Industries Ltd is already fighting a case against its other joint venture Toyo Sharda India Pvt. Ltd in National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT):

BSE announcement, October 25, 2018, page 2:

Sharda Motor Industries Dispute With Toyo Sharda India Pvt. Ltd

Investors may seek further clarifications from the company in relation to these disputes.

 

7) Seemingly speculative derivative transactions by Sharda Motor Industries Ltd:

While reading the FY2018 annual report of the company, an investor notes that the company has recognized losses on derivatives contracts, which are not considered as hedged.

FY2018 annual report, page 134:

Sharda Motor Industries FY2018 Derivative Losses Unhedged

Further advised reading: Understanding the Annual Report of a Company

The derivative transactions, which are not designated as hedged may include speculative bets taken by the company in derivatives segment of the markets.

Investors may contact the company to seek clarifications about these transactions. Investors may ask the company whether it enters into speculative derivatives transactions.

It is important because, in FY2008-10, many Indian companies suffered due to derivatives transactions, which went the wrong way and the companies were forced to undergo restructuring/declare bankruptcy. Investors may read the case of Indo Count Industries Limited to read more about a company, which suffered a loss of about ₹150 cr on derivatives transactions during this period and had to enter restructuring.

Advised reading: Analysis: Indo Count Industries Limited

 

8) Sale/ Disposal of assets year after year by Sharda Motor Industries Ltd:

While reading the past annual reports of the company, an investor would notice that the company has been deducting significant amounts from its fixed assets under sales/disposal year after year.

FY2016 annual report, page 79:

Sharda Motor Industries FY2016 Sale Of Assets

FY2015 annual report, page 72:

Sharda Motor Industries FY2015 Sale Of Assets

Further advised reading: Understanding the Annual Report of a Company

Overall, in the last 10 years (FY2009-18), the company has disposed of assets amounting to ₹100 cr.

Sale Disposal Of Assets By Sharda Motor Industries Ltd

However, the annual reports of the company do not provide details in terms of identification of the assets disposed of or the reasons for such disposal.

Investors may contact the management to seek further clarifications in this regard.

Advised reading: How should investors contact Companies/Management for clarifications or additional information?

 

9) Nonpayment of undisputed custom duty liability by Sharda Motor Industries Ltd:

While reading the past annual reports of the company, in the annexure to the auditor’s report, an investor gets to know that Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has not paid a customs duty of ₹6.59 lac. An investor may also note that as per the independent auditor, there is no dispute in relation to this customs duty.

FY2018 annual report, page 49:

Sharda Motor Industries FY2018 Pending Custom Duty

While reading the annual reports of the previous years, the investor notes that this undisputed custom duty is pending since FY2015.

FY2015 annual report, page 58:

Sharda Motor Industries FY2015 Pending Custom Duty

Further advised reading: Understanding the Annual Report of a Company

 

10) Error in the annual report of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd:

While reading FY2018 annual report, on page 29, company states that its promoter Mr. Ajay Relan holds 41.27% shares in the company:

Sharda Motor Industries FY2018 Shareholding Of Ajay Relan

However, when the investor reads the details of shareholding of each of the promoters’ at page 22 of FY2018 annual report, then she notes that the shareholding of Mr. Ajay Relan in the company is 32.19:

Sharda Motor Industries Shareholding Of Ajay Relan At March 31, 2018

Further advised reading: Understanding the Annual Report of a Company

Investors would note that there is a difference of about 9% in the data of shareholding of Ajay Relan in two different places in the annual report. If an investor adds the shareholding of Ajay Relan (HUF) in the company of about 0.32%, even then, the difference cannot be reconciled.

Moreover, in the above image, an investor would note that the promoter Ajay Relan has sold 19,663 shares of the company in FY2018.

Investors may contact the management to know the reasons for the difference in the shareholding details of Ajay Relan at different places in the annual report. It might be a simple typographical error or the company may wish to rectify the same.

Moreover, investors may seek clarifications regarding the reasons for the sale of the shares by the promoter of the company.

 

11) Sharda Motor Industries Ltd was listed on stock exchanges soon after it was formed and even before its first plant was functional:

While going through the website of the company, an investor would notice that Sharda Motor Industries Ltd was formed in 1986 and it came out with an IPO on Delhi Stock Exchange in 1987. The IPO was even before its first large scale plant became functional in 1994.

Sharda Motor Industries IPO Soon After Formation Of Company Delhi Stock Exchange

The company’s shares were almost non-liquid for many years. As per FY2010 annual report, there was no trade in the shares of the company at Delhi Stock Exchange since 1998.

FY2010 annual report, page 22:

Sharda Motor Industries No Trading At Delhi Stock Exchange Last Trade In January 1998

Further advised reading: Understanding the Annual Report of a Company

Later on, the company listed its shares on the Bombay Stock Exchange (May 2013) and National Stock Exchange (September 2015).

 

Other queries:

  • With regard to the level of lease rentals being paid by the company to its promoters, investors may contact the company to seek more details about the location and size of the properties. Once investors have these details, then they may use public and information sources to know whether the company is paying lease rental, which are in line with or are higher than the market rate in those locations.
  • Similarly, in case of purchase of assets from the joint venture, investors should seek clarifications from the company about the assets, which are purchased. Only after these details are available, then the investor may use other sources to know whether the assets are purchased by the company at a fair value.

 

Margin of Safety in the market price of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd:

Currently (April 1, 2019), Sharda Motor Industries Ltd is available at a price to earnings (PE) ratio of about 10.4 based on the consolidated earnings of FY2018. The PE ratio of 10.4 offers a small margin of safety in the purchase price as described by Benjamin Graham in his book The Intelligent Investor.

Further advised reading: 3 Principles to Decide the Ideal P/E Ratio of a Stock for Value Investors

Read: How to Earn High Returns at Low Risk – Invest in Low P/E Stocks

Further advised reading: Hidden Risk of Investing in High P/E Stocks

 

Conclusion:

Overall, Sharda Motor Industries Ltd seems a company operating in a cyclical industry, which has been able to protect and improve its profit margins over the years. The key reason for such performance seems to be the focus of the company on research and development activities, which have led to the company being ready with technologically advanced products (BS-VI) for the future requirements of its customers.

Over the years, Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has created value for its shareholders. However, when an investor notices certain aspects like high remuneration of promoters and loans from related parties taken by the company at interest rates, which are higher than the interest rates charged by financial institutions, then she realizes that there is a possibility that the promoters may have favoured themselves over minority shareholders.

The settlement of the ownership dispute between the promoters factions seems to be neutral for the current economic interest of public shareholders. However, Sharda Motor Industries Ltd is also fighting the case against one of its joint ventures in NCLT and another of its joint venture is not paying the dues to the company. It is advised that investors may seek clarifications from the company in this regard.

Advised reading: How should investors contact Companies/Management for clarifications or additional information?

An investor may also get clarifications from the company about its seemingly high depreciation levels, speculative derivative transactions as well as sale/disposal of fixed assets of about ₹100 cr over the last 10 years (FY2009-18).

Investors may also seek clarifications from the company about an undisputed custom duty liability, which Sharda Motor Industries Ltd has not paid since FY2015.

Going ahead, the investor may keep a track of profit margins of the company to monitor whether the company is able to retain its competitive edge. Investors may also monitor the remuneration level of promoters and the amount of loans from related parties and the interest rate applicable to such loans.

Investors may keep a close track on the developments related to the family settlement of promoter group and the dispute of Sharda Motor Industries Ltd with its joint venture.

Further advised reading: How to Monitor Stocks in your Portfolio

These are our views on Sharda Motor Industries Ltd. However, investors should do their own analysis before taking any investment related decision about the company.

You may use the following steps to analyse the company: “Selecting Top Stocks to Buy – A Step by Step Process of Finding Multibagger Stocks

Hope it helps!

Regards,

Dr Vijay Malik

P.S:

 

DISCLAIMER

Registration Status with SEBI:

I am registered with SEBI as an Investment Adviser under SEBI (Investment Advisers) Regulations, 2013

Details of Financial Interest in the Subject Company:

Currently, I do not own stocks of the companies mentioned above in my portfolio.

Get FREE e-book and Subscribe for Blog Updates

Free Investing Ebook Case Studies Peaceful Investing
  • Get the e-book: "Case Studies: Applying Peaceful Investing Approach"
  • Learn fundamental analysis by reading 20 case studies in this e-book

Follow My Portfolio with Latest Buy/Sell Transaction Updates

  • Historical annualized return (CAGR) of the portfolio 34.16% against CAGR of Sensex of 11.35%
  • We identified companies, which were later invested by Sanjay Bakshi, Mohnish Pabrai, PE funds, Mutual Funds
  • See details of stocks in our portfolio
  • Get updates of buy/sell transactions in our portfolio by email

"Peaceful Investing": My Stock Investing Approach

“Peaceful Investing” approach is the result of my more than a decade of experience in equity markets. This approach helped me invest even when I had a full-time corporate job and could not spare a lot of time for stock analysis. During my investing journey, I have faced all the common challenges of the investors, the biggest one being “scarcity of time”. “Peaceful Investing” approach keeps in mind that an investor will have limited amount of time to spare for stock investing. 

The objective of “Peaceful Investing” approach is the selection of such stocks, where once an investor has put in her money, then she may sleep peacefully. Therefore, if later on, the stock prices rise, then the investor is happy as she is now wealthier. On the contrary, if the stock prices fall, even then the investor is happy as she can now buy more quantity of the selected fundamentally good stocks.

Watch Balance Sheet Analysis through a Free Sample Video:

Play Video

Please share your comments here:

Get FREE e-book and Subscribe for Blog Updates

Free Investing Ebook Case Studies Peaceful Investing
  • Get the e-book: "Case Studies: Applying Peaceful Investing Approach"
  • Learn fundamental analysis by reading 20 case studies in this e-book
Bitnami